Friday, 13 January 2017


How do you avoid being sued for defamation? That’s easy. Don’t ever say anything interesting. If you do want to say something that might reflect negatively on someone else, there is always a chance that they will sue you for defamation.

It doesn’t matter how careful you are. Some people will sue out of spite or revenge, or to cause you financial pain, or because they feel they have to be seen to defend their reputation.

Some will sue to try to force you to retract, even though they know you’re right. Some sue for sport. But it’s rare. Usually people don’t sue, even when they have been defamed.

Still, defamation lawsuits, when they occur, are usually expensive, technical, drawn-out, stressful affairs. You are better off avoiding them if you can. So it makes sense to minimise the risks. You can do that by writing in a way that makes it hard to sue you.

Here are my twelve golden rules for minimising the risks of getting sued for defamation.

1. Be aware of what you’re saying

In defamation cases, you are liable not just for what you say expressly, but what ordinary people will read between the lines. You are also liable for publishing a defamatory statement made by someone else, even if you quote them accurately. You need to identify any “stings” in what you write the barbs that affect someone’s reputation. What will ordinary, reasonable, fair-minded people take it to mean?

2. Control the meaning

The first battle in a defamation case is usually over what the words mean. Don’t leave this to chance. Plaintiffs like to exploit ambiguity, claiming that the audience will understand it in a defamatory sense. You should try to eliminate ambiguity and convey your meaning precisely.

3. Only say what you can prove

Truth is usually the most important defence in a defamation claim. Ask yourself what evidence you could put before a court if someone challenged you, and how convincing that evidence would be.

Do you have sources? Are they credible? Do they have first-hand knowledge? Would they be willing to give evidence? If you’re relying on documents, do you have someone who can authenticate them?

4. Pick the right “tier” of meaning

Many defamatory statements involve some sort of accusation or allegation. The courts distinguish between different “tiers” of allegation, depending on how equivocally the accusation is put. At one end is an allegation of guilt – Jack is corrupt.

Next down is the suggestion that there are reasonable grounds to believe or suspect guilt – Jack is suspected of corruption; or Is Jack corrupt? Then there is an inference that there are reasonable grounds for inquiry – Police should investigate whether Jack is corrupt. It’s much easier to prove a third tier meaning like this than a first tier one. You only need evidence pointing to guilt rather than proof of it.

Rules 1 and 2 above suggest that you should pick out the tier that you know you can prove.

The safest thing to do is to use the exact language of the courts: There are reasonable grounds to suspect Jack is corrupt. That may be clunky, but it will seldom leave any ambiguity for plaintiffs to exploit.

5. Say what you don’t know

This follows from the above rules. If you are open with your audience about what you don’t know, and what you’re not alleging, then it’s very hard for a plaintiff to argue that readers will take more from it than that.

6. Use the language of opinion

There’s a defence called honest opinion (it used to be fair comment) for those who are expressing genuine opinions on accurate facts that are set out or understood by the audience. So make it clear that you’re expressing or republishing a view.

Say “I think”, “he believes”, “she reckons”, “they claim”. Say whose opinion it is. Use phrases that are evaluative, not factual – “I think his behaviour was disgraceful”. Use rhetorical questions rather than assertions of fact. Use visuals to clue readers in to the fact that they’re getting opinions, as in a letters to the editor page.

Instead of making factual allegations, use the word “seems” or “appears” (Jack seems to be corrupt), which at least opens the door for an opinion defence.

7. Make sure the opinion is based on true facts

Ideally, you should set those facts out, and keep them separate from the opinion. The facts don’t need to justify the opinion, they just need to provide a platform for it, so that the audience can tell it’s an opinion and have some idea about what it concerns.

If the facts are already in the public domain, you don’t need to do more than nod toward them.

8. Put them together

Why not take advantage of several defences at once? Jack is a police officer, I saw him at a caf being given a package by Nick; shortly afterward, the charges against Nick were dropped and Jack bought a yacht, so I think there are reasonable grounds to suspect Jack of corruption.

9. Take particular care with allegations of criminality and allegations about what’s going on in someone’s mind

If you’re accusing someone of a crime, or of (for example) lying, you need to have particularly strong evidence. It is difficult to prove someone’s state of mind, so you are better off talking about the person’s conduct itself (what she said was false/misleading) rather than stating baldly that she lied.

10. Take advantage of privilege defences

The Defamation Act lists a set of events that are more or less safe to report on: council meetings, press conferences, public inquiries and the like.

Even if people are slagging each other during those occasions, you are insulated from defamation if you report on them in a fair and accurate manner and in good faith. Get familiar with these rules.

You should also note that you have slightly more leeway in publishing criticisms of politicians, as long as you’re engaging in genuine political discussion and acting responsibly.

11. Act ethically

In many ways, this is your best protection against a lawsuit. If you act ethically, you’re less likely to make defamatory mistakes. If you do, the people you defame are less likely to sue you.

If they do sue, you’re more likely to have a defence. Even if you don’t have a defence, the judge and jury are likely to be sympathetic to you and damages are likely to be lower. How do you act ethically? Conduct obvious checks. Don’t rely on biased sources. Don’t say more than you know. Put your criticisms to those you are criticising before you publish, and include their responses. Be measured.

Be prepared to issue a correction and apology if you get something wrong. These steps will also position you well to argue for a defence of qualified privilege. Although this defence is in flux, it may be available to publications on matters of public interest where the publisher has acted responsibly.

You should try to position yourself to take advantage of the possibility that this defence will be available.

12. Bear in mind who you’re dealing with

Some people are much more likely to sue than others. Politicians, for example. Business people. Celebrities. People whose reputation is important to their livelihood and have the resources to take action. Also, take extra care writing about police and journalists. And, of course, lawyers.




The term defamation used to define the injury that is caused to the reputation of a person in the eyes of a third person. The injury can be done by words oral or written, or by signs or by visible representations. The intention of the person making the defamatory statement must be to lower the reputation of the person against whom the statement has been made in the eyes of the general public.

cyber defamation is a new concept but the traditional definition of the term defamation is application to the cyber defamation as it involves defamation of person through a new and a virtual medium.

Cyber defamation is publishing of defamatory material against another person with the help of computers or internet. If someone publishes some defamatory statement about some other person on a website or send emails containing defamatory material to other persons with the intention to defame the other person about whom the statement has been made would amount to cyber defamation.

Tips to avoid cyber defamation

1 Stick to true, verifiable facts and your personal observations, experiences, and reactions.

2 Don't use anyone's image for commercial purposes without express permissions.

3 If you base a character on a real, living persons, mask identifying features.

4 When in doubt, or when threatened with suit, consult an experienced attorney.


  • Be careful what personal information you share online including in email, on social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter and chat rooms. It is very easy to glean information about where you live, the places you love to go to in your area and the people you care about from posts and pictures.
  • Create a different email account for registering in social networking sites and other online spaces. It will help avoid spam and your personal email won´t be revealed if the online service doesn’t have a good privacy practice.
  • Do not feel obligated to fill out all fields when registering online or provide identifying information such as birthdates and place in required fields.
  • In your online user profile, use a photo that doesn’t identify you or your location, so you can’t be recognised.
  • Consider using a name that is not your real name or a nickname as your email name, screen name or user ID. And try not to use common dates such as your birthday as the digits in your email name or password. Instead, pick a name that is gender- and age-neutral. Treat your email and/or internet account like you would your credit card, ID or passport number – very carefully.
  • If you are breaking up with an intimate partner – especially if they are abusive, troubled, angry or difficult – reset every single password on all of your accounts, from email and social networking accounts to bank accounts, to something they cannot guess.
  • Services such as Facebook change their privacy policy all the time, so it isd idea to check your privacy settings to make sure you are sharing the information you want to share with people you trust and not the general internet public. Some sites have options for you to test how your profile is being viewed by others – test and make sure you only reveal what is absolutely necessary.
  • What information are family and friends posting about you? Let them know your concerns about privacy and help them learn better privacy settings.
  • Do an internet search of your name regularly and monitor where you appear online. If you find unauthorised info about yourself online, contact the website moderator to request its removal.
  • Make sure that your internet service provider (ISP), cell phone service, instant messenger (called internet relay chat, or IRC in some terms of service) network and other services you use has an acceptable privacy policy that prohibits cyberstalking. If they have none, suggest they create one and/or switch to a provider that is more responsive to user privacy concerns and complaints.
  • If you have a blog or personal website you maintain, please read the information on the next page.

What you should do if someone starts stalking you online?
  • Trust your instincts. If you feel uncomfortable or an online situation becomes hostile, remove yourself from the online space by logging off or surfing elsewhere, or block the other person´s access to you.
  • If you are receiving unwanted contact, make clear to that person that you would like him or her not to contact you again. Many women who have reported being harrassed do this and warn that any further contact will result in the filing of a police report. Depending on the harasser, engagement with the person can escalate or cease, so if you consider contact appropriate and necessary, do so once and document it.
  • Save all communications with the stalker for evidence. Do not edit or alter them in any way. Try using print screens, especially if the harrassment is happening in real-time.
  • If the harasser posts comments on your blog, keep copies but also consider unpublishing rather than deleting abusive posts.
  • Keep a record of your communications with internet system administrators or law enforcement officials if you report the stalker to authorities. Record-keeping is absolutely crucial so keep everything, even though the immediate desire might be to delete the communication from the stalker and try to forget about it. Back up these communications on another computer or removable memory stick or external hard drive.
  • Consider blocking or filtering messages from the harasser. Many email programs have a filter feature. Chat room contact can also be blocked, and you can activate the ‘IP address block’ option on your blog or website if someone posts harassing comments continuously.
  • If your internet searches reveal that the stalker is publishing harmful information about you in other online spaces, make a complaint to the moderators/managers of the external site. State that you view this as part of a continuing situation of online harassment towards you, and request that they either block the harrasser’s IP, remove posts, or caution the harrasser to cease or be blocked.
  • Tell your family and friends that someone is stalking you online. Being stalked – online or offline – is a traumatic experience and support from your family and friends is critical at this time to help you cope. Also check what they are revealing about you and their relationship with you in their online spaces, albeit inadvertently.
  • Tell your employer that someone is stalking you if you think this person may harass you in the workplace. Your employer will be more likely to back you up if they receive harassing or questionable messages about you from the cyberstalker, and they may be helpful in mitigating any professional damage.

   Where you are supposed to file a complaint.
  • If harassment continues after you have asked the person to stop and/or the harassment escalates, contact the harasser’s internet service provider. Most ISPs have clear policies prohibiting the use of their services to abuse another person. Often, an ISP can try to stop the conduct by direct contact with the stalker or by closing their account. If you receive abusive emails, identify the domain (after the “@” sign) and contact that ISP. Most ISPs have an email address such as abuse@domain name> or postmaster@domain name> that can be used for complaints. If the ISPhas a website, visit it for information on how to file a complaint. Follow up with the ISP and make sure action is being taken, and keep all communications with the ISP.
  • Check with your own ISP to assist in blocking a stalker’s access to you and consider changing services if they are insensitive to your requests or have no policies.
  • Check out which bodies or agencies are available in your country and community that can investigate and take action in online harassment cases. Contact the police or other relevant agency and inform them of the situation in as much detail as possible, providing copies of your documentation of the harrassment.
  • Remember to keep all communications with police as a record of evidence as well. Depending on your country, harrassment and stalking may not be typified as a crime, or local police may not be aware of recent applications of harassment law to cyberstalking. If you are not finding local recourse, consider appealing to national cyber-police mechanisms and/or women’s safety advocates. If you are having trouble contacting the right body, write to We’ll see if we can point you in the right direction.
  Stalking is something which is very popular among common man, even your facebook account can be stalked. In simple words, stalking is nothing but just viewing your account by someone else, but if that  person uses in an illegal way, then it becomes a big problem. They may take the photos you posted and morf your photo with someother person to do some illegal actions against you (blackmail). These things are very common nowadays. So stalking can happen anywhere and by anyone, I request you all to take security measures and keep your account secured  by not letting unwanted people to view your account. First learn to know who all are viewing your profile, be aware about that person who is stalking your profile often, then take necessary actions.



Cyberstalking is the use of internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group, or an organization. It may include false accusations, defamation, slander and libel. It may also include monitoring, identity theft, threats, vandalism, solicitation for sex, or gathering information that may be used to threaten, embarrass or harass.

Cyberstalking is often accompanied by realtime or offline stalking. In many jurisdictions, such as California, both are criminal offenses. Both are motivated by a desire to control, intimidate or influence a victim. a stalker may be an online stranger or a person whom the target knows. He may be anonymous and solicit involvement of other people online who do not even know the target.

Cyberstalking is a criminal offenses under various state anit-stalking, slander and harassment laws. A conviction can result in a restraining order, probation, or criminal penalties against the assailant, including jail.

Cyberstalking includes but is not limited to:

 • harassment, humiliation and embarrassment of the person targeted

 • harassing family, friends and employers to isolate the person

 • tactics to make the target fearful

 • taking on the identity of the other person

 • monitoring (e.g., using Facebook notifications to find out where the person is going,  using spy ware, activating GPS)

 Cyberstalking can be difficult to address due to:

• stalker anonymity

• law enforcement assumption that a stalker located far away will not travel to follow up

 on threats

• the stalker encouraging online buddies to participate in the harassment, increasing

 How people experience cyber stalking
Through mobile phones

 SMS/Calls If a stalker can obtain your mobile number, they may harass you through SMS messages and phone calls. They may use it in combination with GPS to reveal that they know your location. Stalkers can also use spyware to intercept your messages and calls.

GPS GPS may tell you what coffee shops are nearby, but it can also let others know where you are. The fortunately defunct Girls Around Me app was a perfect storm of GPS info and unscrupulous developers.

Photos Photos have information embedded in their properties that include when and where you took them. It can also be possible to decipher the location based on what's in the image.
Through laptops

SOCIAL MEDIA It's very easy to glean information about where you live, the places you visit regularly and the people you care about from posts and pictures. Your friends might also unintentionally reveal information about you.
ONLINE CHATTING Stalking from online acquaintances can happen in chatrooms. Also, if you use the option to "automatically remember your password," anyone using your computer can log in to your messenger services.
 BLOGS Stalkers like to hang out in comment spaces and post threats and insults. This is especially common when the stalker is someone unknown to you.
 EMAIL Email addresses are often attached to real names and profiles, and stalkers may use these to contact you directly. Again, spyware can be used to access your private email.
WEB CAMS Stalkers use spy ware to access webcams and film people without their knowledge or consent.


1. Know Your Data
Understand the data your company has on hand and what is at risk. A company can’t fully know how much is at risk until they understand the nature and the amount of data they have.
2. Back It Up, and Back It Up, and Back It Up Again
Create file back-ups, data back-ups and back-up bandwidth capabilities. This will help a company to retain its information in the event that an extortion occurs.
3. Phishing: Meet Training
Train employees to recognize spear phishing. Cyber security is not just an IT issue, it is an HR issue. All employees should learn the importance of protecting the information they regularly handle to help reduce exposure to the business.
4. Who, Who Are You?
Do background checks on employees. Background checking employees can help identify whether they have criminal pasts.
5. Set Limits
Limit administrative capabilities for systems and social footprints. The fewer employees who have access to sensitive information, and the less access, the better.
6. Keep the Bad Guys Out ...
Ensure systems have appropriate firewall and antivirus technology. After the appropriate software is in place, evaluate the security settings on software, browser and email programs. In doing so, select system options that will meet your business needs without increasing risk.
7. ... But Be Prepared in Case They Get In Anyway
Have data breach prevention tools, including intrusion detection. Ensure employees are actually monitoring the detection tools. It is important to not only try to prevent a breach but to make sure that if a breach occurs the company is aware as soon as possible. Time is of the essence.
8. Patch, Patch, and Keep on Patching
Update security software patches in a timely manner. Regularly maintaining security protections on your operating system is vital to them being effective over time.
9. Down with DDoS
Invest in protection against distribution denial-of-service attacks. It is important to have the ability to avoid or absorb attacks meant to overwhelm or degrade your systems.
10. Fast Response Plan
Put a plan in place to manage a data breach. If a breach occurs, there should be a clear protocol for which an employee is managing the situation, and what action should be taken, such as informing the insurance provider and so on.
11. Keep Your Insurance Current
Protect your business with insurance coverage designed to address cyber risks. Insurance coverage typically includes liability protection when individuals who have been affected hold a company responsible for information compromised and will help pay for a company’s cost in dealing with a breach.


Demanding huge amount of money through internet otherwise the company data or information of an individual will be leaked. Nowadays demanding of ransom after kidnapping also done
through internet via e-mail is called Net Extortion.

Reasons behind Net Extortion:

Some criminals think to have huge amount of money in small time by doing software piracy and demanding ransom against that company.

 Criminals thinks that if they demand for ransom through net they can’t be traced, so they commit crime like kidnapping or software piracy and demand money from the victim through an e-mail or through chat.

 Some hackers/ criminals do random chatting in a chat room with girls/ women’s and they try  to win their confidence after which they force or excite them to get nude on cam, which they record it and then demand for ransom or physical relationship with them.


 A company that protects personal account information of a customer has to be on the lookout for individuals who wish to put them in a compromising situation when it comes to another's funds. Raj B Lonsane states that it is important to know how to tackle this from an angle that is highly sophisticated.

a) Banks have to update their security so that the attacker doesn't familiarize himself/herself with the way the framework is designed. before finally hacking into it states Raj B Lonsane.

b) Raj B Lonsane adds that banks should advise customers on reporting any kind of money deduction that they aren't aware that they were a part of. Whether a small or big amount, banks should encourage customers to come forward and openly tell them that this could mean that an act of fraud could very well be the scenario.

c) Most important according to Raj B Lonsane is that customers should ideally not store information online when it comes to bank details. But of course they can't help the fact that banks rely on network that has all cutomers hooked onto a common platform of transactions that require a database. The safe thing yo do is to make sure the bank/website is highly trusted and hasn't been a part of a slanderous past that involved fraud in anyway.

  How to identify the salami attack                            

The only way to detect salami attack according to me is to perform rigorous box testing by checking each and every line of code which is exhaustive but that's the only way.

source: wikipedia


Salami slicing refers to a series of many small actions, often performed by clandestine means, that as an accumulated whole produces a much larger action or result that would be difficult or unlawful to perform all at once. The term is typically used pejoratively. Although salami slicing is often used to carry out illegal activities, it is only a strategy for gaining an advantage over time by accumulating it in small increments, so it can be used in perfectly legal ways as well.

An example of salami slicing, also known as penny shaving, is the fraudulent practice of stealing money repeatedly in extremely small quantities, usually by taking advantage of rounding to the nearest cent (or other monetary unit) in financial transactions. It would be done by always rounding down, and putting the fractions of a cent into another account. The idea is to make the change small enough that any single transaction will go undetected.


There is no software application or algorithm for detection of salami slicing. Identifying this type of publication misconduct is complex because salami publications do not often include text plagiarism so that manuscripts can easily evade strict software checking. Only under the rare circumstances of encountering both the original and the salami manuscript can some editors or reviewers suspect salami publication. Even though there are no objective ways to detect this sort of redundant publication, manuscripts suspected of being salami publications often report on identical or similar sample size, hypothesis, research methodology and results, and very often have the same authors.
An example for salami slicing
 In January 1993, four executives of a rental-car franchise in Florida were charged with defrauding at least 47,000 customers using a salami technique.
In Los Angeles, in October 1998, district attorneys charged four men with fraud for allegedly installing computer chips in gasoline pumps that cheated consumers by overstating the amounts pumped.
In 2008, a man was arrested for fraudulently creating 58,000 accounts which he used to collect money through verification deposits from online brokerage firms a few cents at a time.

Here are few prevention tips for salami slicing, 

• Contrast programs and files that may contain checksums with backup versions to determine the veracity loss.
• Write-protect the diskettes, more than ever when testing an untrusted computer program.
• Prevent booting a hard disk drive system from a diskette.
• While transferring files from one computer to the  another, use diskettes that does not have an executable files that strength  to be infected.
Source: wikipedia
Salami slicing is not so popular, but still it happens in few places. In movies also salami slicing has taken its role, For example movies like SUPERMAN III, HACKERS and OFFICE SPACE, where the special characters are being the role model and inspiration for the younger generations, but even in movies they teach en number of illegal activities which is really not required for real life. actually salami slicing was introduced by orthodox communist leader MATYAS RAKOSI in the year 1940, to describe the action of the Hungarian Communist Party. Then, it was used by the nazi party to attain the full power of Germany in 1933. And now they use it for many unlawful purposes. As I already mentioned humans are capable of doing correct things in a wrong way, each and every thing are used in unlawful way to threaten others and fulfill their own unethical desires.


Ask questions. Fraudsters are counting on you not to investigate before you invest. Fend them off by doing your own digging. It’s not enough to ask for more information or for references – fraudsters have no incentive to set you straight. Take the time to do your own independent research.

Research before you invest. Unsolicited emails, message board postings, and company news releases should never be used as the sole basis for your investment decisions. Understand a company’s business and its products or services before investing. Look for the company’s financial statements on the SEC’s EDGAR filing system. You can also check out many investments by searching EDGAR

Know the salesperson. Spend some time checking out the person touting the investment before you invest – even if you already know the person socially. Always find out whether the securities salespeople who contact you are licensed to sell securities in your state and whether they or their firms have had run-ins with regulators or other investors. You can check out the disciplinary history of brokers and advisers for free using the SEC’s and FINRA’s online databases. Your state securities regulator may have additional information.

Be wary of unsolicited offers. Be especially careful if you receive an unsolicited pitch to invest in a company, or see it praised online, but can’t find current financial information about it from independent sources. It could be a pump and dump” scheme. Be wary if someone recommends foreign or “off-shore” investments. If something goes wrong, it’s harder to find out what happened and to locate money sent abroad.

Protect yourself online. Online and social marketing sites offer a wealth of opportunity for fraudsters. For tips on how to protect yourself online see Protect Your Social Media Accounts. Online and social marketing sites offer a wealth of opportunity for fraudsters. For tips on how to protect yourself online see Protect Your Social Media Accounts.

Know what to look for. Make yourself knowledgeable about different types of fraud and red flags that may signal investment fraud.

How do successful, financially intelligent people fall prey to investment fraud? Researchers have found that investment fraudsters hit their targets with an array of persuasion techniques that are tailored to the victim’s psychological profile.

If it sounds too good to be true, it is. Watch for “phantom riches.” Compare promised yields with current returns on well-know stock indexes. Any investment opportunity that claims you’ll receive substantially more could be highly risky – and that means you might lose money. Be careful of claims that an investment will make “incredible gains,” is a “breakout stock pick” or has “huge upside and almost no risk!” Claims like these are hallmarks of extreme risk or outright fraud.

“Guaranteed returns” aren’t. Every investment carries some degree of risk, which is reflected in the rate of return you can expect to receive. If your money is perfectly safe, you’ll most likely get a low return. High returns entail high risks, possibly including a total loss on the investments. Most fraudsters spend a lot of time trying to convince investors that extremely high returns are “guaranteed” or “can’t miss.” They try to plant an image in your head of what your life will be like when you are rich. Don’t believe it.

Beware the “halo” effect. Investors can be blinded by a “halo” effect when a con artist comes across as likeable or trustworthy. Credibility can be faked. Check out actual qualifications.

“Everyone is buying it.” Watch out for pitches that stress how “everyone is investing in this, so you should, too.” Think about whether you are interested in the product. If a sales presentation focuses on how many others have bought the product, this could be a red flag.

Pressure to send money RIGHT NOW. Scam artists often tell their victims that this is a once-in-a-lifetime offer and it will be gone tomorrow. But resist the pressure to invest quickly and take the time you need to investigate before sending money.

Reciprocity. Fraudsters often try to lure investors through free investment seminars, figuring if they do a small favor for you, such as supplying a free lunch, you will do a big favor for them and invest in their product. There is never a reason to make a quick decision on an investment. If you attend a free lunch, take the material home and research both the investment and the individual selling it before you invest. Always make sure the product is right for you and that you understand what you are buying and all the associated fees.